How many female entrepreneurs are there in Italy? Data and trends

imprenditrici donne

  • Women entrepreneurs in Italy are at the top of 1 million and 342 thousand companies.
  • They are mainly active in the service sector.
  • Unlike men’s businesses, they are less present in handicrafts.

How many are there? women entrepreneurs in our country? There are pink businesses in Italy 1 million and 342 thousand and make up 22% of the companies active in Italywhich in total amount to 6 million in the entire national territory.

These are the numbers from the latest report by Unioncamere and Centro Studi Tagliacarne1 on women’s entrepreneurship, about 2021.

Arguably a marginal rate if one looks at the Italian business scenario, even if they have seen stronger growth than their male counterparts. But in the five years between 2014 and 2019, the Women-owned businesses up 2.9%compared to 0.3% of men.

The report also examines women-owned businessesand cooperatives or partnerships with at least 60% women among members. In joint-stock companies, however, they must own at least two-thirds of the shares. Let’s look at it in detail.

Women entrepreneurs in Italy

In 2021, there are women entrepreneurs in Italy 1 million and 342 thousand.

The Region with the largest number of female businesses in 2021 is Lombardywith 181,722 pink businesses, representing 36% of the country’s total.

Followed by Campania and Lazio (140 thousand each) and Sicily, with 116 thousand.

41% of companies headed by female entrepreneurs are located in the north, where the largest number of Italian companies reside. The remaining 34% is in the South and 25% in central Italy.

In relation to all companies, the area where the presence of female activities is greater It’s the South.

Compared to the national average of 22%, in Southern Italy women’s businesses reach 23.7% of the total in the region. In Northern Italy, the corresponding share is just over 20% (551,000) and in Central Italy it reaches 20%.

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The size of the companies

Let’s focus on the size of companies led by female entrepreneurs.

96.7% are very small businesses, 3.1% are small-sized, while 0.3% are medium/large. However, looking at the corporate structure, the following percentages are recorded:

  • individual companies: 61.7%;
  • capital companies: 24.3%?
  • partnership: 11.1%;
  • other legal forms: 2.9%.

11.3% of women-owned businesses are created by young people. This percentage appears to be similar to that of foreign companies which make up 11.6%.

Women’s entrepreneurship: the economic sectors

Analyzing the sector in which women entrepreneurs are active, it is possible to understand certain specificities. Most women-owned businesses operate in the following sectors:

  • Services: 66.8%;
  • Agriculture: 15.4%?
  • industry: 11.3%.

In 2021, the rosiest sector of all is the one related to personal serviceswhere 60 out of 100 companies are present.

In the health and social care (cares for the elderly, nurseries, aesthetic medicine centers, etc.) has the second largest share of women’s businesses, equal to 37.3% (just over 17,000 in absolute terms).

Just 11% of businesses run by women are industrial, but the report highlights that female entrepreneurs have increased by more than 600 points in this sector, compared to a decrease for men.

Women’s entrepreneurship is too slightly less manual than the male: pink businesses are just over 219,000 and make up 16.3% of all women-owned businesses.

Also in this case, we read in the report, there is a tendency opposite to the male one: the iPink companies rise 0.3% (corresponding to 737 more units), while non-female ones decrease by 0.4%.

Within a craft business context, characterized by a reduction in workers, women entrepreneurs are an important support for the sector.

Women Entrepreneurs – Frequently Asked Questions

How many female entrepreneurs are there?

In Italy there are 1 million and 342 thousand and they make up 22% of the companies active in Italy.

In which sectors are they mainly active?

In most cases they work in services, mainly personal.

Geographically, where do we find the largest number of female entrepreneurs?

The region where the largest number is present is Lombardy, although the region where they are more present in percentage is the South.

Cash VAT regime: how it works and duration

iva per cassa cosa è

  • The VAT cash scheme, also known as “cash accounting”, offers entrepreneurs and the self-employed the opportunity to deferment of VAT payment for supplies of goods and services at the time of collection.
  • To access the VAT cash scheme, taxpayers must they are active in the exercise of businesses, arts or professions and have a turnover that does not exceed two million euros.
  • Despite its flexibilities, the VAT cash regime However, it does not cover all functions active or passive.

VAT in cash is a particularly interesting solution for small and medium-sized businesses. This regime, introduced for alleviating liquidity problems which can affect business activities, changes the traditional approach to paying VAT, creating opportunities and at the same time imposing specific requirements.

Businesses, especially in the case of SMEs, can therefore be made easier to pay this tax: let’s see what is VAT in cash, how does it work, who can access it and what are the relevant exceptions.

What is the VAT cash scheme and how does it work?

The VAT cash scheme, also known as “cash accounting“, represents an innovative approach to VAT managementintroduced by article 32-a of Legislative Decree 83/20121. It offers entrepreneurs and the self-employed the opportunity to manage VAT in a more fluid way and according to the financial reality of their business. But what does it actually mean?

In practice, the regime allows you to do so deferment of VAT payment for supplies of goods and services. Instead of tax being paid at the time of invoicing or transaction, VAT becomes due only when payment is received from the customer. This means that the tax is not paid in advance on the amount invoiced, but only on the amount actually collected.

At the same time, the right to deduct VAT on purchases follows a similar logic: the discount becomes possible only at the time of payment of payments to suppliers and not at the time of invoicing or execution of the transaction.

An important feature of this regime is its temporary nature: VAT becomes payable one year after the transaction takes placeunless special situations arise, such as the customer being subject to insolvency proceedings.

This mechanism guarantees a certain flexibility, but also a time limit within which the VAT must still be paid. If the cash VAT regime therefore proves to be a viable option for many, However, it is not accessible to everyone. Let’s see what the requirements are.

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Requirements to access the VAT cash scheme

Exists specific criteria which determine who can benefit of this tax opportunity. The requirements for joining the VAT cash register are clearly described to ensure that it is implemented correctly and efficiently.

First, the regime is open taxpayers who are active in the exercise of business activities, arts or professions. Which, however, includes a wide range of economic activities, from commercial to professional, thus offering a certain flexibility in terms of the types of permitted activities.

Another fundamental criterion is linked to turnover. To access the VAT cash scheme, taxpayers must have achieved, in the previous year, turnover not exceeding two million euros. For new businesses, this limit applies to the current year’s revenue forecast.

VAT for cash how to issue an invoice

This requirement is intended to focus the scheme on SMEs, for whom liquidity and VAT management can be particularly critical.

In addition, the scheme is designed specifically for operations carried out on the territory of the state and to transferees or clients who themselves carry out business, artistic or professional activities.

also non-commercial entities they can choose to adopt cash VAT, but only for the commercial activities they can carry out. There are also specific cases of exclusion, involving active or passive acts.

VAT per cash: cases of exclusion

In In some cases it is not possible to adopt the VAT status in cash. Those who do not comply with the requirements we saw above cannot return. In addition, even certain active or passive activities are excluded from the possibility of observing this favorable VAT regime.

Let’s see which active activities (that is, generating economic income) and passive activities (that generate economic expenses) are exempt under the regulations provided by the Revenue Service.

1. Active functions

Before we delve into the specific exceptions, it’s important to clarify what “active operations” means. In the tax sector, Active are those that concern the sale of goods or the provision of services by a company or professional or that generate income for economic activity.

Despite its flexibility, However, the cash VAT regime does not cover all active activities. Some of them are actually excluded:

  • functions below special VAT regimes: includes activities such as agriculture, allied activities, profit margin plan and travel and tourism agency activities;
  • functions with non-entrepreneurs or professionals: if the services or goods are sold to customers who are not engaged in business, arts or professions, these transactions are not subject to the VAT cash regime.
  • functions with reverse charge;
  • operations with deferred collection: some already have deferred collection without an annual limit, such as sales to the Government, to health care bodies or sales of medicinal products by pharmacists;
  • international business: intra-Community supplies, exports and similar operations, where the supplier does not charge VAT on the invoice.

It is noted that, if a taxpayer carries out both special status transactions and under the normal regime, it can charge cash VAT only on the latterprovided that you have selected separate accounting for the activities.

2. Passive functions

Passive trading, on the other hand, refers to purchases of goods or services by a company or professional. These transactions represent financial outflows. Also, in this case, certain passive operations are excluded from the VAT regime in cash:

  • chargeback purchases;
  • intra-Community purchases of goods;
  • imports of goods;
  • exports of goods from VAT warehouses.

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How to access the VAT cash scheme

The choice to join the new regime is expressed by the taxpayer through decisive behavior, that is, acting in a manner consistent with participation in the regime. It is then necessary to formally notify this choice to the Revenue Service through the VAT return, specifically in Part VO, relating to the year in which the scheme takes effect.

A critical aspect of this choice is its duration: once the cash VAT scheme is chosen, the taxpayer commits to it for at least three years. The only exception to this rule is the case where the turnover exceeds the limit of two million euros. In this case, the taxpayer automatically exits the regime starting from the month or quarter following the one in which the limit was exceeded.

After the minimum period of three years, the option for status remains in effect for each subsequent yearunless the taxpayer decides to revoke it. The withdrawal methods are the same as for membership.

Adopting the VAT-in-cash regime affects the timing of payment or deduction of VAT, but does not change other procedural and accounting obligations, such as billing and registration. Who chooses it cash accounting must indicate on the issued invoices the note that it is a transaction with “VAT per case” in accordance with article 32-a of the legislative decree of June 22, 2012, no. 83.

VAT per cash – Frequently asked questions

What is VAT per cash?

Cash VAT is a tax scheme that allows entrepreneurs and the self-employed to pay VAT on sales invoices only when they actually collect the payments.

How do I enter a VAT invoice in cash?

When issuing an active invoice under the cash VAT regime, it is necessary to indicate the wording: “Cash VAT operation, as provided for in art. 32 bis of Legislative Decree 83/2012, which was converted into Law 134/2012”.

When is VAT due?

In the cash VAT regime, tax becomes payable when payment is received for an invoice issued. In addition, if the amount is not collected, the VAT is still payable one year after the invoice is issued, unless special situations arise such as the customer being subject to insolvency proceedings.

Corporate forecasting: what it is and how it works

forecast aziendale

  • The company forecast It is a future forecast based on present and past data that determines the hypothetical demand for goods and services at a later time.
  • To create the company forecast, companies can use the qualitative method or quantitative method.
  • Forecasting represents a decision-making approach that allows companies to better manage the impact of future uncertainty based on collected data.

In order to make forward-looking strategic choices, companies need to be able to predict market trends and to do this they resort to tools such as company forecast.

It is a useful tool for companies that want to grow their business in a thoughtful way, predicting what the demand will be in a future period of time.

We can also think of it as a business forecasting or decision making approach which is based on past and present data to determine the demand for goods and services. There are two different methods for conducting this type of analysis, one quantitative and one qualitative.

What is the company’s forecast

The term company forecast in Italian it can be simply translated to mean business forecast. Forecasting activities are precisely for predicting the future and knowing in advance what the trends will be in various aspects of the company.

Consequently, prediction is a species statement containing forecast data and serves to identify the hypothetical demand for the goods and services subsequently offered.

Along with budgeting, forecasting is an essential element of business management and offers an idea of ​​what the future may hold.

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Corporate forecasting: how it works

what is corporate forecasting

To make strategic decisions, companies must be able to predict future demand for goods and services.

This is why company forecasts are essential in a company’s decision-making process. They compose a kind of balance sheet, a statement that contains predictive data. In Italian, the most accurate translation could be “pre-final balance”.

Predictions generally come updated month to month or on a quarterly basis. In this way, companies are able to predict the direction the market is taking and modify their budget and business strategies accordingly. It is also useful for evaluating potential opportunities and risks as well as helping in financial decision making.

Unlike a company’s budget, which contains forecasts for the coming year, a forecast is a budget document based on the current year.

Corporate forecasting: the methods

Forecasting can be done by choosing between two possible methods: the qualitative method and the quantitative method. Let’s see in detail how the two methods work and the differences between them.

1. Quality Forecast

The qualitative prediction designed to provide companies with subjective results. Forecasting in this case, in fact, consists of the collection and analysis of personal judgments provided by experts, forecasters and decision makers.

These are imprecise predictions precisely because they are based on knowledge, intuition and experience. This can cause cognitive biases and distortions of different types.

2. Quantitative Prediction

The quantitative method, however, is based on an automatable mathematical process. This makes predictions more consistent and objective than the qualitative method.

For its realization we use thebig data analysis. These are then interpreted by company experts. This method, more reliable than the first, is often used by companies specifically for medium-long term planning and budgeting.

The quantitative method also includes the discipline of time series analysis by which companies examine historical data and how variables have interacted with each other in the past.

Another approach is to examine cross-sectional data to identify connections between variables, that is, through aeconometric analysiswhich often uses regression models.

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The process in forecasting the company

company forecast calculation

Regardless of the method chosen, it is essential follow a specific procedure to get accurate predictions.

First of all it is necessary expand the base of the view you intend to create through the analysis of the conditions of the company. Next, it will be necessary to determine the current position of the company in the market.

The process is based on four main steps:

  1. income statement reclassification.
  2. update and modify data;
  3. voltage calculation.
  4. input of expected values ​​in the reference period.

But let’s look at the four steps in detail.

1. Reclassification of the income statement

The first step you need to take is his account reclassification economic. This is necessary as financial statements and accounting documents alone are not able to provide the necessary information for forecasting.

In practice, a detailed analysis of the company’s expenses and profits is carried out, revising the budget plan as necessary.

2. Updating and modifying data

In order to make a company forecast that is as accurate as possible, it is necessary take into consideration. While it can be difficult to keep this data up-to-date, given the rate at which new changes are added, it’s important to get the most accurate predictions.

3. Calculation of trends

Examining industry trends is a fundamental step because it offers a easy parameter comparison. Calculating trends can be done using various tools and to have a clear picture of the company’s performance, various types of charts can be used.

In this way, it is possible at any time to access accurate data that takes into account major movements of the company during the year or years.

4. Enter expected values ​​in the reference period

At this point all that remains is to enter the forecast data. Generally the data expressed by the trend is very similar to that of the forecast. Therefore, it will be necessary to examine past data and compare it with what actually happened.

Comparing past trends with current trends provides an idea what will be the trends in the future. These must then also be combined with data relating to specific variables.

Types of Company Forecasts

typologies of company forecasts

At least they can be distinguished four types of company forecasts and I am:

  • demand planning;
  • sales forecast;
  • cash provision;
  • rolling forecast.

Each of these typologies offers predictions in specific business contexts. But let’s see them in detail.

1. Demand planning

The demand planning, or demand planning, is a method for making an external demand forecast. This is a method based on the demand for goods and services offered by the company.

In this way it is easier to proceed with the production planning and the planning of the necessary materials and warehouse capacity.

2. Sales forecast

The sales forecast consists in making a sales forecast and represents the set of techniques that allows you to more accurately determine the volume of business for a certain period in the future.

This method therefore allows you to predict future sales based on market analyses, which take into account the various factors that could have an impact.

3. Cash forecast

There cash forecast is a forecast that focuses primarily on cash flows. This tool allows you to predict in advance the income and expenses that will occur in the future. This type of forecast can be made for a longer or shorter period of time, for example a year or a month.

This type of planning can also allow for better planning of the company’s future needs.

4. Rolling forecast

The rolling forecast it is a continuous reference, a fixed forecast, which is periodically updated by the companies. It is a forecasting model distinguished by the various areas of interest and applied to every area of ​​the company.

This design can be particularly beneficial for entering new data each month based on variables that will affect the near future and knowing their trend.


What are the advantages of company forecasting

The advantages of forecasting are many. First of all, it is useful for outside investors who use it to determine whether events affecting a company will increase or decrease its stock price.

Conversely, for those who manage the company, forecasting the company is essential to be able to exploit effective forecasting tools necessary for develop a long-term perspective of the actions to be implemented.

These predictions are also necessary to be able to analyze the possible impact of a change within or outside of business operations.

For example, company forecasting can be useful for collecting data on how changes in working hours or employee productivity affect customer satisfaction and, consequently, business results.

Company Forecast – Frequently Asked Questions

What does the company foresee?

The company forecast is an essential tool for predicting the future of the market and consists of a forecast based on past and present data. It is essential for making strategic decisions.

What is a rolling forecast?

A rolling forecast is a type of business forecast and consists of a report based on a continuous period of time. This is a fixed forecast that is updated periodically. Find out what the other types of predictions are.

What is the difference between a budget and a forecast?

A forecast is a predictive analysis aimed at the current year while a budget is a forecast made for the next year. Basically, the main difference between a budget and a forecast is about the time frame of reference.

How does the company forecast work?

The company forecast reports important information about future forecasts for the company: from possible financial income to the number of sales, to figures that may concern production.

Only 10% of companies survive the generational transition

passaggio generazionale aziende

  • One of the most difficult times that companies have to face is generational change.
  • Different factors come into play, starting with personal relationships.
  • The best way to overcome the moment is to prepare for it in advance.

The generational change represents one of the most important issues facing small and family businesses.

According to a recent Interreg Europe analysis carried out in the European Union, entitled “Strengthening the competitiveness and sustainability of European SMEs through succession processes and models1“, which can be translated to: “Improving the competitiveness and sustainability of European SMEs through succession processes and models“, in Europe only 30% of companies are able to survive the second generation.

Only that 10% are able to pass the transition to the third generation. But let’s see in detail what risks companies have to face.

A generational transition that is difficult to manage

The transition of generations, for the majority of European companies, is a very delicate and challenging moment the very survival of the company is at risk.

In Europe only 30% of family businesses manage to survive the transition to the second generation. An even lower percentage when you look at the second pass: only 10% manage to survive.

It is important to emphasize that succession is of different types and may involve different subjects. It may also concern, for example, those non-family directors.

This particular situation turns out to be very common in the Italian business web, which consists of a very high proportion of family SMEs. In the next five years, generational turnover will involve at least one in five family businesses.

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Generational transition of the company: the critical issues

Without a doubt, the succession of generations constitutes a unique moment in the life of the company, but also a critical one. There are many problems that can arise.

Some directly involve the family and consist of personal relationships and financial needs. Others, however, are closely related to the company, such as corporate structure, roles and powers.

generational transition companies

Inefficient and ineffective management of generational transition can also have dramatic consequences. But what are the critical issues that must be addressed in the transition of generations?

This operation is long and complex. On the one hand, sure, the Family businesses enjoy certain advantages, consisting of tremendous organizational flexibility, cohesion and family tradition. Unfortunately, it is also true that the merger between family and business sets certain limits:

  • there is no clear distinction between family relationships and corporate roles: Family problems often appear in the company and vice versa.
  • rejection of new ideas: when the new generation starts to have new ideas and wants to introduce new approaches to the business, which may not be in line with what the founder has done so far, conflicts can arise.
  • adequate training of the successor: when the heir is not properly prepared, he will be burdened by the transition of generations and all the impromptu decisions that follow.

The importance of business planning

As we saw earlier, most family businesses are unlikely to survive the transition of generations. This business is demanding and complex, but above all it affects many people: entrepreneurs, family, employees and stakeholders. It must be addressed with the involvement of the entire corporate structure.

To be able to guarantee business continuity is always necessary adopt an accurate and effective strategy. We need to focus the resources of the company and strengthen the innovation carried out by the new generations.

Therefore, it is necessary to foresee the transition of generations in advance and then to plan the transfer of the company step by step with all the strategies to be adopted to remain competitive in the market. To do this, it is also advisable to rely on a specialist consultant.

overall business

How to cope with the transition of generations

A question that becomes more reasonable than ever, nowadays, this is how generational change should be dealt with. In most cases, change is synonymous with vitality and evolution: as such it should always be welcomed in a positive way.

Those who should notice this should be first of all the older generations. These should consider the transition of generations as an important and important moment for the company to continue to live, even if in a completely different way from the way it happened until that moment.

To ensure a smoother and smoother handover, it would be ideal for new recruits to start working in the company long before they should have taken control of it.

This would give them greater security. But not only that: they could gain greater knowledge of production processes and contribute to their improvement in an optimal way. And above all with more power to workers.

This slow passage would allow the business to be managed more calmly, leaving nothing to improvisation. The important thing, then, is to understand which of the heirs might be interested in continuing in the footsteps of their predecessors.

And above all what could be her role within the company and make it grow. In this way they will have the opportunity to improve their skills, facilitating the transition of generations.

Education for the transition of generations

Definitely one of the aspects that should not be ignored it’s that of training. Not just corporate leadership and the family in charge. But also of all the company’s employees: all staff must be adequately trained and ready to take on leadership roles at various levels within the company.

This should be provided for not only when specific circumstances arise, but as a permanent philosophy of the company.

In other words it must be foreseen continuous training within the company. Not just for words hard skills and technical skills. But for everyone skills and management skills.

In this way the human tissue present in the company will always be ready to carry out its work in the best possible way, at all times and even when it is necessary to face generational change.

In addition, the full participation of people within the company is always recommended. To do this there must be a good quality of communication.

The company must be diligent and ensure that its employees are always adequately informed about the cultural, organizational and market changes that are taking place. Especially when there are generational changes. There crystal clear and transparent communication of what is happening, serves to better prepare employees.

Generational Change – Frequently Asked Questions

How many companies survive the generational transition unscathed?

Only 10% of family businesses survive the second generation transition. Discover the data in detail here.

Is it possible to change the low percentage of companies that survive the generational transition?

The only way to make the transition of generations easier is to prepare the successor. In addition to planning the operation over time.

What are the biggest problems of family businesses?

While on the one hand they have an easy structure, on the other hand there is not always a clear separation between family and business. Problems can arise especially during the transition of generations.

How much does a university professor earn?

quanto guadagna un docente universitario

  • His role University professor in Italy no contract has been concluded: this is a unique category without a National Collective Agreement.
  • This status allows for greater autonomy in contract negotiations, even if they exist anyway some basic conditions.
  • The average annual salary of a university professor is higher than that of workers in other academic occupationsbut it varies significantly between the different categories: full-time, substitute and contract teachers.

There The figure of the university professor plays a decisive rolenot only in the field of education, but also in that of research and innovation.

For an in-depth understanding of the job position and the salaries associated with this profession, it is necessary to underline that the university professor is considered as an unconventional person at the national level.

This category, unique in its kind in public administration, stands out for its lack of a National Collective Agreement regulating the employment relationship.

So there are no fixed pay scales, but that doesn’t mean they don’t exist special contractual conditions must be met: Let’s see what it is and how much an average university professor earns in Italy.

University Professor and non-contractual administration

University teachers are non-contractual: we refer to a specific category of civil servants, distinguished by the absence of a National Collective Agreement (CCNL) regulating terms and conditions of employment.

In practice this means that university professors they do not fall within the scope of standard contracts which regulate most professions in the public sector.

This distinction places university professors in a unique position compared to other categories public administration professionals. While most civil servants operate according to the instructions of a CCNL, which sets clear parameters When it comes to pay, career progression, holidays and other rights, university professors take a different path.

Conventional terms

Their status provides a greater autonomy in determining contractual terms, which are often subject to individual negotiation with the university institution to which they belong. However, this does not mean that there are no specific contractual terms that must be met1:

  • the basic salary of university professors is strictly related to that of general managers of the first level of the State, like ambassadors. To this basic salary is added the special supplementary allowance, an amount intended to adjust the salary to the cost of living. Both of these components are pensionable, i.e. they contribute to determining the pension;
  • for teachers who have chosen full-time status one is provided 40% increase in basic salary. This increase is intended to recognize the additional commitment required by this work status.
  • The basic salary of a B grade teacher (substitute professors) is equal to 70% of the full-time professor (full-time professors).
  • every three years professors and researchers are required to submit a detailed report of their teaching, research and management activitiesuseful for asking for a salary increase or for incremental salary increases based on merit and performance.
  • for contract teachers, the financial treatment in cases of costly cooperation is regulated at national level. The hourly wage varies between a minimum of 25 euros and a maximum of 100 euros, as defined by Ministerial Decision 313/2011.

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How much does a university professor earn?

According to ISTAT data2THE The average annual salary of a university professor in Italy is €46,997, which corresponds to an average monthly amount of approximately 3,916 euros plus the thirteenth. This figure, although an average, offers an interesting overview of incomes in the Italian academic sector.

To put this gain into perspective, it helps to make one comparison with other academic professions in public administration.

how much does a university professor earn

In general, university professors tend to they earn more than other education professionalssuch as secondary school teachers, who earn an average of €29,368 per year, or researchers, with an average annual salary of €40,649.

However, compared to other managerial positions in the civil service, Their income can vary greatly. This is partly due to the aforementioned contractual flexibility, which can lead to significant pay differences between individuals, even within the same academic field.

University Professor Categories

There are mainly three categories of university professors: i full professors, substitute professors and contract professors. Each of these categories has distinct characteristics, responsibilities and compensation levels.

1. Regular teachers

Full professors represent the higher level in the academic hierarchy. These faculties are responsible for leading research, supervising doctoral studies and leading departments or faculties. They also have a central role in teaching and setting the academic direction of the institution.

Because of their experience and position, full professors tend to have the highest salaries among academic categorieswith salaries that can vary significantly depending on seniority, reputation and institution.

2. Associate professors

This category represents a intermediate position between regular teachers and researchers or early career teachers. Associate professors carry out both research and teaching activities, but with less administrative responsibilities compared to regular teachers.

Their salary is generally lower than that of regular teachers, but higher than that of researchers and contract teachers. Again, earnings may vary by institution and individual experience.

3. Contract teachers

Assistant professors are specialists and professionals who are hired teach specific courses or modules, often on a temporary or part-time basis. These teachers can come from both academia and the private sector.

Their pay is general calculated per hour or per lesson and tends to be significantly lower than that of full or associate professors. Sometimes, some collaborations are voluntary.

How Much Does a University Professor Earn – Frequently Asked Questions

What does “non-contractual administrator” mean?

The status of “non-contractual administrator” means that university professors are not subject to a formal National Collective Agreement. This allows them greater flexibility in negotiating contractual terms with the university institution. Learn more here.

What is the difference in salary between full-time, substitute and contract teachers?

Full professors, being at the top of the academic hierarchy, generally have the highest salaries, followed by associate professors who earn less, but more than researchers. Contract teachers, who are often hired to teach specific courses or units, have an hourly or per-course salary, which tends to be lower than the other two categories.

How much does a university professor get for each thesis student?

There is no remuneration for thesis supervision for university professors, as this activity is considered an integral part of their regular work responsibilities.

How much does a university professor earn?

According to ISTAT data, the average annual salary of a university professor in Italy is €46,997, which corresponds to an average monthly salary of around €3,916 plus the thirteenth salary.

Vinted and DAC7 declaration: all the rules

vinted dichiarazione dac7

  • From January 1, 2023, DAC7 instruction of the European Union requires platforms like Vinted to provide details of sellers’ transactions and income above certain thresholds.
  • Completing DAC7 on Vinted is mandatory for sellers who create more than 30 sales the they earn more than 2,000 euros in a year.
  • Taxation in Vinted depends on the frequency and amount of sales and the DAC7 declaration does not automatically entail tax obligations.

From 1 January 2023, the European Union has implemented the DAC7 Directivetax regulation directly affecting online sales platforms and their users, which aims to ensure greater tax transparency and fairness in the growing digital commerce sector.

According to DAC7, the popular second-hand sales platform, Vinted, is also required detailed data collection on sellers’ transactions and incomes exceeding certain profit thresholds.

Although the regulation actually applies from 1 January 2023, Many users only received a communication about the DAC7 at the end of the year, after you exceed the maximum sales limits to avoid filling it. Let’s see what the seller should do.

DAC7 statement for Vinted: who must complete it

Let’s start with a simple premise: the DAC7 it is a simple informational statementwhich is sent to the Revenue Agency so that it can monitor the sellers who are most “successful” on the platform to ascertain any irregularities.

The obligation only enters if one of the following conditions occurs within a calendar year:

  • a seller has made 30 sales or more.
  • a seller earns more than 2,000 euros from his sales on Vinted.

According to current regulations, Vinted is responsible for informing sellers that fall into these categories. Communication can be done in three ways:

  • an immediate notification on the platform;
  • a message in the seller’s Inbox.
  • An email message.

Some users reported receiving a message on WhatsApp where a scammer pretended to be Vinted to extort personal data from the unsuspecting victim, so be careful: always verify the authenticity of communications and make sure they come from official accounts. A DAC7 declaration does not automatically result in tax liabilities.

However, they exist certain exceptions to the deposit for certain sellers; that is:

  • listed entities;
  • government agencies;
  • sellers with a residence outside the EU

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Issuance and tax return: sales taxes

The taxation of sales made through Vinted depends on several factors, in particular the frequency and amount of sales. As we said, the DAC7 statement does not necessarily entail tax obligations.

If sales are they are performed occasionally and do not amount to a significant amount, generally there are no tax obligations. Occasional sales, without a fixed and regular frequency, exclude the need for specific tax obligations.

However, it remains a fundamental aspect the total profit from sales. If in a year your total earnings exceed a certain limit, then you are subject to tax on all the income you earned in that period, as the activity ceases to be casual.

In these cases, it is always better contact an accountant to present your specific situation and to understand if there are any tax obligations.

DAC7 declaration for Vinted: how to complete it

Completing the DAC7 statement requires accuracy and care, since the information provided will be forwarded to the Revenue Agency. Please note that until January 31, 2024 the platform will send to the tax authorities all data for sellers related to 2023. However, with some foresight, it is possible to comply with this in a simple way.

The first step in compilation is provide your personal data. This includes:

  • your full name as it appears on your ID or passport;
  • the tax code or VAT number, if applicable;
  • the date of birth, to be entered in the format DD/MM/YYYY;
  • residence or main registered address.
vinted and dac7 declaration

In terms of financial transactions, it will be necessary provide the IBAN of the current account used for transfers from ‘Vinted Balance’. It is also important to determine if the current account holder is different from the name registered with Vinted.

Sellers should then report the amount of income earned on Vinted for each quarter, as well as the number of sales completed during the same period. Remember that a sale can be either a single transaction for one item or a transaction for a set of multiple items.

To find exact information you can go to “My orders“within the area”Profile” of the application. In some cases, you may be asked to provide certification of the data through additional documentssuch as an identity document or proof of residence.

Can I sell on Vinted without a DAC7 declaration?

If a seller asked to complete the DAC7 declaration ignores the relevant warnings and does not provide the requested information, the platform is forced to taking restrictive measures:

  • it will not be possible to make transfers from Vinted Balance.
  • funds accumulated in Vinted Balance cannot be used to make purchases on the platform.
  • it will no longer be possible to use the built-in shipping options offered by Vinted to ship sold items.

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How to avoid filling in the DAC7 form

The subject is complex and some strategies to avoid completing the DAC7 statement which may seem valid at first glance are completely ineffective.

A common assumption is that leaving the profits in the Vinted Balance, without transferring them to a current account, you can avoid reaching the limits that require completion of DAC7. However, this strategy is not efficient, since Vinted counts the total trades regardless of whether the profits are carried over or not.

Another case is to ask buyers make the payment directly to a different bank account, bypassing Vinted’s payment system. This method is not recommended as it reduces the trust between seller and buyer and offers no guarantee of payment after receiving the item.

An alternative that has been considered by some is cf exchange hands with cash payment. This method, however, falls under tax evasion practices, an action that is definitely not recommended and is completely illegal.

The only legal and safe way to avoid filling out the DAC7 form on Vinted is to just do it do not exceed the thresholds set for the declaration. This means keeping the number of sales below 30 items per year and/or ensuring that total profits do not exceed 2,000 euros in a calendar year.

DAC7, Vinted and other online platforms

Suppose a subject you sell various products both on Vinted and other online platforms. In this case is it necessary to complete the DAC7?

From a practical point of view it is possible to sell on different platforms while staying below the threshold to complete DAC7, however it is not recommended to go this way to avoid this requirement.

And in this case there is even a risk of tax evasion and after specific checks by the tax office you may be penalized. It should also be noted that there are precise legal limits under which the sale is possible on an occasional basis: when these limits are exceeded, you must also open a VAT number.

Vinted and DAC7 statement – ​​FAQ

Do Vinted sellers have to declare?

Not necessarily. It is necessary to declare if 30 sales are exceeded in a year or if profits of more than 2,000 euros have been achieved before the end of the year.

When must sales be reported to Vinted?

Only in certain cases, i.e. when the limits set by the DAC7 directive are exceeded. Find out how it works here.

What happens if I don’t compile DAC7?

If you do not complete DAC7 even though it is mandatory, Vinted will limit certain features of your account: you will not be able to make transfers from your Balance, use your Balance for purchases, or use the platform’s built-in shipping options.

Average income in Italy: how much families earn

reddito medio italia

  • In 2022 the average family income in Italy ranged from about 27,000 to 38,000 euros per year.
  • The average income in Italy is higher in the north-east region, while it is significantly lower in the south and on the islands.
  • In the year 2022 there was an increase in the incomes of Italians compared to the previous period, after the economic crisis caused by the pandemic.

Italy faced a severe economic crisis caused by the consequences of the Covid-19 health emergency, but the average income in the country from 2021 it has increased, just as the percentage of the population that in previous years found itself in conditions of severe material and social deprivation has also decreased.

The The average Italian income varies depending on several factors, starting with the geographic area. Another important factor is the type of income received, whether from employment, self-employment or a pension. In this article we will see what the average income is in Italy, based on the official data of Istat, published in June 2023 in relation to the year 2022.

Average income in Italy: 2022 data

The National Institute of Statistics, ISTAT, has published data on average incomes received in Italy in June 20231. These refer to 2022 and highlight the differences compared to the previous year.

In general, among all types of income, Istat found that in 2021, families residing in Italy received a net income equal to an average of 33,798 euroswhich is roughly equivalent to 2,817 euros per month.

average income in Italy 2023

However, 2022 was the second year of the Covid-19 pandemic and plans were put in place to restart economic activities. These measures led to a increase in family income compared to 2021. In nominal terms growth was 3%, while in real terms it was 1%.

Certain items such as meal vouchers, non-monetary benefits and personal consumption were also taken into account in the income calculation.

It must be considered, in fact, that compared to the previous year, 2021 Median family income fell only in the South by -1.7%. On the contrary, they increased in the northeast by +3.3% and in the northwest by +2.5%, while remaining essentially unchanged in the center.

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The average earnings of Italian families

Area Income 2021 Income 2022
Northwest 36,018 euros 37,647 euros
Northeastern 36,418 euros 38,340 euros
Centre 33,837 euros 34,555 euros
South and Islands 27,053 euros 27,114 euros

Median household income increased in 2022 compared to the previous year. However, the Istat figures highlight the gap between families based on geographical area.

From here you can then get to average income in Italy equal to 33,798 euros in 2022higher than the 2021 average of €32,812.

However, it must be taken into account that the distribution of income in Italy remains deeply asymmetric, which leads us to the conclusion that the majority of families receive an income lower than the average amount.

About half of the families residing in Italy receive an income of less than 26,979 euros, so about 2,248 euros per month.

In terms of geographical areas, Families in the Northeast receive a higher incomeslightly higher than those in the Northwest, but significantly higher than the median income in the Center and South.

Average income in Italy by family type

Median income varies mostly by family type, and that’s where it matters distinguish couples with children from single-parent families.

Couples with children have an average income of 41,218 euros (about 3,435 euros per month). More specifically, families with three or more children receive an average income of around 42,290 euros, lower than that observed for couples with two children and slightly higher than those with only one child.

Instead, Single-parent families have an average income of 28,435 euroswhile 50% of the elderly living alone receive an income of 15,948 euros.

The couples without children They receive a median income of €27,569 if at least one of them is elderly while it is higher, around €35,000, for younger couples without children.

The average income of women is much lower (around 6,000 euros). families with foreigners compared to that of families composed only of Italians.

Overall, in 2022 household income from wage labor increased by 4.2% compared to 2021 while income from self-employment increased by 5.8%.

Average income from work

Based on statistics from the Labor Price Observatory 20222, the average RAL (Gross Annual Salary) in Italy is 30,284 euros.

Starting from this data, the average RAL varies according to the role it occupies. Let’s see in detail:

  • administrators: average RAL 103,418 euros.
  • executives: average RAL 55,632 euros.
  • employees: average RAL 32,174 euros.
  • employees: average RAL 25,522 euros.
average income of workers in Italy

The average income of a company employee also varies significantly depending on the type of contract. It is even necessary to examine whether or not only the thirteenth or the fourteenth is foreseen. In the case of a salary with a thirteenth, the net salary in Italy is around 1,800 euros for the workers. This rate is lower, however, for workers, as it stops at around 1,500 euros on average over 13 monthly payments.

The average wage over 14 months, however, is just under €1,700 for white-collar workers and around €1,400 for workers.

In contrast, the average salary of a manager is 4,400 euros net in 13 months and 4,100 euros in 14 months, while for directors the average salary over thirteen months is over 2,600 euros and after 14 months it drops to 2,400 euros.


Average self-employment income

Based on what was announced by the Ministry of Economy and Finance3The natural persons with VAT number who filed a return for the tax year 2021 is about 3.7 million.

From these statements it was possible to know that just under half of the subjects comply with the flat rate regime (about 1.7 million).

Flat-rate VAT holders achieved a taxable income of €25.2 billion, i.e. an average of €15,601. They therefore paid an additional tax (15% or 5% for the first five years of activity) equal to 3 billion euros, that is, an average of 1,874 euros.

According to data collected by the MEF, around 85% of Irpef taxpayers have mainly income from work or pensions. Only 6.4% of Irpef taxpayers have income derived from business activities or self-employment.

Average retirement income

average income Italy self-employed

Based on statistics from the Ministry of Economy and Finance, The average income from pensions in Italy is 18,990 euros nod.

Based on the INPS Observatory on pensions valid in 2022, the average monthly amount Pensions paid to private employees were 1,456.71 euro for old-age pensions. In contrast, disability pensions averaged €811.38 per month.

As regards, however, the average income of retired former self-employed and semi-dependent workersthe amount recognized monthly is equal to 989.22 euros, which drops to 671.48 euros for disability pensions.

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Average business income

Based on the partnership returns for the 2020 tax year are 723,337, the The average income declared by cooperatives is equal to 47,140 euros. Compared to 2019, this percentage decreased by 2.1%.

In contrast, the partnership returns for tax year 2021 disclosed a declared average income of 52,980 euros12.4% higher than 2020.

Average income in Italy – Frequently asked questions

What is the average income in Italy?

The average income in Italy was €33,798 in 2022, an increase compared to 2021. The average income is higher in the northwest while it is lower in the south and the islands.

What is the average income of a worker in Italy?

Employees earn an average of €25,000 per year and above, based on the role they hold, even earning over €100,000 in RAL for managers. The average RAL in Italy is 30,284 euros.

What is the average income of a self-employed person?

In 2022 the highest average income is from self-employment, over 60 thousand euros, while for individual businesses the average annual income is around 24,000 euros.

What is the average income of an Italian family?

With reference to 2022, we are talking about an average income of 33,798 euros in Italy for families. Discover all the official details here.

Contribution allowance for working mothers 2024: the relief

decontribuzione lavoratrici madri

  • The 2024 budget law will introduce a new format tax breaks for working mothers.
  • The new measure foresees significant differences based on the number of children, which there must be at least two.
  • The allowance amounts to approximately 1,700 euros with a gross salary of 27,500 euros.

The government has been working on drafting the new 2024 budget law, which will introduce, among many new features, a new tax breaks for working mothers.

The intervention provides a financial benefit intended for mothers workers with at least two children, one of which is under 10 years old. But we will go into more detail about the requirements in a specific paragraph.

What does the new measure consist of and what are the objectives? The deduction is added to the tax cut and will be targeted in one piece of female workers in the private and public sector. According to the forecasts, it will be necessary to allocate approximately 450 million euros.

What is the 2024 tax break for working mothers?

From January 2024, the ban on changes to the Budget Law, a new form tax breaks intended for working mothers.

This measure provides different benefits based on the number of children, which must be at least two. Consequently, there will be differences in the withdrawal in the case of workers with two or more children.

tax relief for working mothers 2024

In addition, in the three-year period 2024-2026, the Budget Law introduces total exemption, by 100%, of the share of social security contributions they pay for disability, old age and survivors, also called IVS contributions. This measure applies to the employee until the month in which the youngest child turns 18. The specified limit is 3 thousand euros on a monthly basis.

In addition, for incomes up to 35,000 euros, the measure adds to the already planned tax wedge cut. The aim is to reduce the payroll contributions for working mothers with at least two children and, consequently, to increase the net monthly salary.

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Contribution relief for working mothers 2024: the requirements

The contribution exemption provided for the three-year period 2024-2025-2026 for the aforementioned social security contributions applies from 1 January 2024 to 31 December 2026. As expected, this relief is provided within the limit of 3 thousand euros until the eighteenth birthday of the youngest of a child.

Consequently, to be able to avail of this benefit, working mothers must have at least one minor child and there must be at least three children. However, only for 2024, the measure is also planned on a pilot basis for women workers with two children, at least one of whom is under ten years old.

This measure is expected regardless of salary level, and applies to both private and public employees. Based on these requirements, the number of beneficiaries in each case will be limited. In the private sector, in fact, we are talking about 571,000 working mothers with two children, one of whom is under 10 years old, and 111,000 mothers with three or more children.

How much is the withdrawal?

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But how much is the financial benefit that working mothers who meet the above conditions will enjoy?

As the value rises gradually, if the measure remains unchanged it will rise to a maximum of €1,700 for a average gross salary 27,500 euros. The financial benefit is calculated net of taxes.

The value remains almost similar in the case of higher wages. In addition, a lower contribution from female workers generates more revenue for the fund which, under this mechanism, will offset the difference created by the lower revenue.

Based on numbers reported in the 2024 budget law technical report1this measure will cost the public treasury about 450 million, excluding the Irpef increase and local surcharges.

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How to access the Working Mothers’ Bonus

The support has also been touted as a bonus for working mothers: some talk of a salary impact equal to almost an extra month’s salary.

According to the legislation, as for the generalized cutting of the wedge, working mothers they will not need to submit applications to receive the withdrawal in the settlement statement.

In fact, it will be the employer himself who will apply the cut in contributions. This mechanism, therefore, will lead to an increase in the net amount on the payroll for working mothers.

Contribution allowance for working mothers 2024 – Frequently asked questions

Who are the tax breaks for working mothers aimed at?

The tax exemption planned to start from 2024 is aimed at mothers with at least two children, one of whom is under 10 years old. For the three-year period 2024-2026, an exemption from contributions is provided for mothers with at least three children, of which at least one is a minor.

What does withdrawal consist of?

The new tax relief provided for in the 2024 Budget Law consists of a total exemption from the payment of social security contributions for disability, old age and survivors, within a maximum amount of 3,000 euros distributed on a monthly basis.

How many female workers will benefit from this benefit?

Based on the technical report, women workers with at least two children, one of whom is under 10 years old, are approximately 571 thousand, while female workers with at least three children, of which at least one is a minor, are approximately 111 thousand. These numbers represent 10% of employees.

How do you claim tax relief for working mothers?

As with the generalized tax reduction, it is not necessary to submit claims in this case either. The employer will apply the reduction in contributions to the settlement statement. This will lead to an increase in the net amount received by the employee.

Reimbursement for travel to business offices

rimborso trasferte negli studi professionali

  • For business trips they are provided by business offices refunds and per diems based on the time spent on the mission.
  • In the case of journeys requiring less than 8 hours, only the reimbursement of expenses such as room and board.
  • For journeys longer than 8 hours, CCNL provides a daily allowance starting at 16 euros per day and can even go up to 30 euros for shipments lasting more than 24 hours.

In some jobs it may happen that an employee has to travel to another city for a limited time, but the law states that he is entitled to receive reimbursement for travel to business offices.

For each journey, trip or mission, the employee not only has the right; reimbursement of all expensessuch as room and board, but in some cases a daily allowance is also provided.

This allowance varies in amount based on the number of hours or days spent on a mission or trip. In this guide we will look in detail at how business travel allowances work with all the rules that need to be followed, both for employers and employees themselves.

Reimbursement for travel to business offices: how it works

travel reimbursement rules to business offices

In some professional companies, as well as in some companies, it may happen that employees have to go on missions or travel. In these cases, employers are required to recognize a reimbursement of travel expenses. This compensation concerns:

  • Travel expenses;
  • Shipping Costs;
  • food;
  • accommodation;
  • daily compensation from 16 to 30 euros based on the time of absence.

These are the compensations to which employees of professional companies are entitled in case of missions or trips on behalf of the employer. This is defined by the National Collective Labor Agreement or CCNL of the professional companies.

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Travel allowance to professional offices: the daily allowance

Type away Compensation
Less than 8 hours Reimbursement of expenses incurred (food, accommodation, etc.)
From 8 to 24 hours Daily allowance of 16 euros and reimbursement of actual expenses (travel, luggage transport, food, accommodation, etc.)
Over 24 hours Daily allowance of 30 euros and reimbursement of actual expenses (travel, luggage transport, food, accommodation, etc.)
During the month Daily allowance of 27 euros and reimbursement of actual expenses (travel, luggage transport, food, accommodation, etc.)

The contract, signed by Confprofessioni and Filcams-Cgil, Fisascat-Cisl, Uiltucs-Uil, stipulates that the travel allowance provides for the reimbursement of expenses and daily wage ranging from 16 to 30 euros per day. The daily allowance is determined only if the trip lasts more than 8 hours.

Travel allowance applies IRPEF tax exemption up to 46.48 euros per day for domestic trips and 77.46 euros for foreign trips. However, the excess amount will be subject to taxation. The arrangements for travel and transport in the CCNL of professional companies are established by articles 98 and 99 of the collective agreement of professional companies.

Reimbursement of expenses and daily allowances for business trips to business offices

Article 98 of the CCNL for Business Enterprises states that: “The employer has the right to send staff on temporary assignments outside the municipality of their residence and the place of work specified in the employment letter or employment contract.”

The same article, dedicated to missions and travel, states that staff are responsible for:

  • reimbursement of actual documented travel expenses;
  • reimbursement of the actual documented costs for carriage of the baggage;
  • the reimbursement of actual documented expenses for food and lodging, postal, telegraphic and other expenses incurred in the execution of the order and in the interest of the employer;
  • daily compensation of 16 euros for missions of more than 8 hours and up to 24 hours and 30 euros per day for missions of more than 24 hours.

It is considered a trip the mission located outside the municipality of residence and place of work stated in the employment letter or employment contract.

However, in the next article, the collective agreement regulates long-distance travel and establishes it for shipments lasting more than a month a reduced daily allowance of 10% is paid.. Consequently, the daily compensation for shipments of more than one month is not 30 euros but 27 euros per day. And the same goes for workers who travel regularly.

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Transportation of a professional studio employee

daily travel allowance to professional offices

Article 100 sets out how the employer must behave in case transfer of workers.

The CCNL provides, in effect, that transfers of the employee to another workplace, which also result in a change of residence of the employee, give right to various types of benefitswhich differ depending on the employee.

Therefore, there is a distinction between an employee who is the head of the family and the non-head of the family, according to the current regulations.

1. Transfer of an employee who is not the head of the family

If the the worker is not the head of the family the contract provides:

  • reimbursement of actual documented expenses for food, accommodation and travel (by the shortest route).
  • reimbursement of actual documented expenses for the transportation of furniture and luggage;
  • refund of any rent paid without enjoyment of the accommodation if the tenancy could not be terminated or the subletting continued. This refund must be paid for a maximum of six months.
  • daily allowance in the amount specified for personnel on temporary assignment.

2. Transfer of the employee who is the head of the family

On the contrary, al working head of family i.e. with one’s own family or living with dependent relatives to whom maintenance is paid, the CCNL provides:

  • the reimbursement of actual documented expenses for board, lodging and travel (by the shortest route), incurred for him and for each dependent roommate belonging to the family unit;
  • reimbursement of actual documented expenses for the transportation of furniture and luggage;
  • refund of any rent paid without enjoyment of the accommodation, if it was not possible to terminate the tenancy or continue subletting (reimbursement of expenses for a maximum period of six months).
  • daily allowance in the amount specified for staff on temporary assignment, for themselves and for each dependent roommate. For dependent children living together, the daily allowance is reduced to three fifths.

However, the CCNL also clarifies this the expected per diems and compensations are paid the absolutely necessary time for the move. If the transport includes the transport of furniture, the employee is entitled to receive daily allowances or compensation up to 8 days after the arrival of the furniture. The notification period is 8 days.

How to request reimbursement for travel to business offices

travel allowance to professional studios with the collective labor agreement

Reimbursements recognized by the employer in case of travel do not contribute to the determination of the employee’s income, provided that sufficient documentation is provided to justify the expenses incurred. There are no limits on the amount.

However, the task is the worker request reimbursement for travel with the presentation expense report. Therefore, the employee is required to submit a special request stating the details of the trip which must be accompanied by supporting documents for food, accommodation, travel and transport expenses as well as any other expenses.

There are three compensation calculation systems:

  • analytical;
  • flat rate;
  • mixed.

1. Detailed refund system

The detailed compensation system provide documentation to prove the trips taken. Room and board expenses must be documented through:

  • invoice, which if addressed to the company also allows the deduction of VAT.
  • received?
  • receipt.

On the contrary, with regard to travel and commuting expenses, travel documents such as registered tickets or receipts issued by the carrier must be presented. The benefits paid in addition to the detailed compensation contribute to the formation of the employees’ income.

2. Flat rate refund system

With the flat rate compensation system Companies pay a flat rate allowance to the employee who travels outside the municipal territory. In this case the allowance is excluded from the taxable base up to the amount:

  • 46.48 euros per day for trips outside the municipal territory but taking place in Italy.
  • 77.46 euros per day for trips abroad.

The compensation paid to the employee covers any food and accommodation expenses, which do not need documentation.

Reimbursements for travel and commuting expenses paid in addition to the lump sum are also exempt from taxation, as long as they are documented.

3. Mixed refund system

The third mixed compensation system represents an intermediate solution between the previous ones. This kind of instrument, in fact, provides itemized reimbursement of room and board expenses as well as a travel allowance.

If detailed reimbursement of expenses is provided food only or accommodation onlythe employer can additionally recognize a tax-free flat-rate travel allowance up to a limit of €30.99 per day for travel in Italy and €51.65 in case of travel abroad.

Reimbursement for travel to business offices – Frequently asked questions

How much are the trips paid for?

According to the CCNL of professional companies, travel expenses are reimbursed in addition to the daily allowance for missions lasting more than 8 hours, which ranges from a minimum of 16 euros per day to a maximum of 30 euros per day.

When must the employer pay for travel?

The travel allowance is provided for the employee who, on behalf of the employer, travels to perform his work outside the municipality of residence or place of work. The refund is provided for all days during which the trip lasts.

How to request a travel reimbursement?

In order to receive compensation, the employee, with the analytical system, must submit an expense report with a specific request stating the details of the trip with all supporting documents of the expenses incurred.

Opening a travel agency: requirements and profits

aprire un'agenzia di viaggi

  • For open a travel agency It is necessary to have a deep knowledge of the industry, to have good marketing skills and it is necessary to carry out certain bureaucratic steps, such as opening a VAT number.
  • One solution to limit the start-up costs of a travel agency and enjoy significant benefits is to open a franchising office.
  • To open a travel agency, it is mandatory to open the VAT number at the Revenue Service with ATECO code 79.11.00: “Travel agency activities”.

Travel enthusiasts with strong organizational skills could use his idea open a travel agency to start a new profitable business. But what are the steps to follow and especially the conditions to start this type of business?

A travel agency is defined as a business that deals with produce, organize and mediate traveltherefore specializes in organizing personalized experiences based on customer needs.

However, since it is an economic activity, some fundamental steps must be followed to get started. In this guide we will see what all the information you need to know to open a travel agency.

Opening a travel agency: how to do it

The travel agency takes over multiple aspects of organizing the excursion. First of all, it creates vacation packages tailored to the needs of customers. In addition, the travel agent books on behalf of the customer the transport to reach the destination, the overnight stays in facilities such as hotels, B&Bs, etc. or identifies the best cruise deals and all-inclusive vacation packages.

Not only that, because the travel agency must also provide assistance to tourists in obtaining the necessary documents, provide all the most important information about the country to be visited, provide travel insurance and recommend the best tourist itineraries based on customer preferences.

requirements for opening a travel agency

To be able to open a business of this type, therefore, you must have strong organizational skills;but also excellent problem solving skills as well as aptitude for marketing and sales techniques.

Travel agents interface with the public, so it is essential to have good communication skills to understand the needs of customers and provide them with all the clarifications they need. Apart from all these skills, however, there are some basic requirements to be able to start this type of business. But let’s see them in detail.

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Conditions for opening a travel agency

To start a travel agency it is necessary to have at least one technical manager. To become a travel agent you must follow a training program. First of all, it’s good to get one degree in Tourism Sciences, to which a master’s degree can then be added. Alternatively, there are many specialist training courses available in this area.

The technical manager of a travel agency must follow a specific course, at the end of which he will have to take an exam at the provincial or regional offices to obtain the necessary qualifications. Once the exam is passed, the manager will be automatically awarded registered in the regional register.

The examination consists of a written and oral examination, which are necessary to demonstrate knowledge in the fields of tourism, trade, marketing, management and industry legislation. In addition, knowledge of at least two foreign languages ​​is required.

In addition to this fundamental requirement, to open a travel agency it is also necessary:

  • registration in the Register of Companies of the relevant Chamber of Commerce;
  • registration in the Regional or Provincial Register of travel and tourism agencies within 10 days of signing the deed of incorporation;
  • open the VAT number.
  • submit the SCIA, a certified notice of commencement of activity, to the relevant Municipality at least 30 days after the commencement of activity;
  • join INPS and INAIL.

Open your VAT number

As we expected, a necessary condition to open a travel agency is to open the VAT number. The business can be started either in the form of a sole proprietorship or, more often, in the form of a company.

Since the travel agency is generally set up in this form, it is not possible to adhere to the flat rate regime. Hence, it will be mandatory they follow the usual regime. This includes paying the following taxes:

  • IRPEF, for natural persons;
  • IRES, for the annual revenues of companies.
  • VAT, the value added tax on all active and passive invoices.

However, unlike the flat rate regime, the ordinary regime allows certain expenses to be deducted, thereby reducing the taxes that must be paid annually.

To open the VAT number you can proceed independently or ask for the advice of a specialist accountant. In addition, the business must be registered in the Register of Companies, which must be carried out by the owner of the agency or the legal representative.

In this case it is mandatory to have a PEC address to be able to communicate with the agencies and tax authorities. When opening the VAT number it is necessary to state not only the accounting statusbut also the ATECO code related to the activity to be started.

ATECO code

cost of open travel agency

When opening the business it is necessary to indicate to the Revenue Service what kind of economic activity you want to start. For this reason it is necessary to specify the correct ATECO (ATivita EConomica) code associated with the travel agency.

The code that must be entered when opening the VAT number is Ateco code 79.11.00: “Activities of travel agencies”. This includes:

  • agency activities primarily engaged in the sale of travel, tours, transportation and accommodation services, to the public and to commercial customers;
  • Travel agency activities: provision of information and advice, travel planning, organization of bespoke travel.

How much does it cost to open a travel agency?

open a VAT travel agency

The cost of starting a business such as travel agency requires a significant initial investmentwhich covers all those necessary start-up costs.

Usually, the average price to open a travel agency is 20,000 euros. The cost, however, can vary depending on several parameters and factors, including the city you decide to operate in, the type of service you plan to offer, and the staff you will hire.

THE major cost to be addressed when opening the business are the following:

  • registration with the Chamber of Commerce;
  • mandatory RCT insurance.
  • renting or buying premises;
  • purchase of computers and equipment;
  • buying furniture;
  • purchase management and licensing software.
  • training costs;
  • staff costs;
  • marketing and advertising expenses;
  • public utility services.

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Open an online franchise travel agency

To reduce the costs associated with opening and managing a travel agency, a profitable alternative is to opt for franchising. In fact, opening afranchise travel agency the cost to open the business can even drop to 10,000 euros.

Open an online travel agency is possible thanks to the franchising formula, access to a series of remarkable simplifications for those just starting out.

With the turnkey solution you save a lot of money and you also enjoy the publicity and prestige of an already established and well-known brand nationally or even internationally, as well as receiving continuous support.

However, in some cases there may be entry fees and royalty payments. Each franchise chain offers its own specific conditions.

How much does a travel agency earn?

General travel agencies they earn a percentage of the products solda value that can range from 4% to over 15%.

The income of a travel agency is very variable. Since it is an independent business, there are many factors that affect revenue: from the location of the agency to its promotional ability, from the care given to customer assistance to the variety of proposals presented. An activity of this type can also arrive they earn annual amounts of around 200,000 euros.

Opening a travel agency – Frequently asked questions

How much money is needed to open a travel agency?

To open a travel agency you need to make an initial investment starting from at least 20,000 euros. By choosing the franchising solution, however, it is possible to save on the start-up costs of a business.

How much does an average travel agency earn?

A travel agency’s profit varies depending on the type of products and services sold. The agency, in fact, receives a percentage on each product or service, a percentage that can range from 4% to over 15%. Find out the details here.

What do you need to do to open a travel agency?

To open a travel agency, there must be at least one technical manager of a travel agency, open the VAT number, register the business in the Business Register, open a position in the INPS and INAIL and send the SCIA to the reference Municipality.

How to become a technical manager of a travel agency?

To become a travel agency technical manager you must pass exams at the provincial or regional offices to obtain the necessary qualifications and register with the regional register. Knowledge of at least two foreign languages ​​is also required.